The Greek population found that the Byzantine civilization which revolved around the Orthodox faith would be more secure under Ottoman rule. This seemed as good an opportunity as ever to install a new sympathetic emperor. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Both of them were checked by the Ottoman Empire. The Venetians would also provide 50 warships for the Crusade at their own cost and receive half of any territory conquered. Migration & Trade We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. The Fourth Crusade was thus called for by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) in August 1198 CE. Fourth Crusade. Alexius IV, who owed his throne to Latins, became bitterly unpopular and was finally toppled in a palace coup in late January 1204. Pope Innocent III was the first pope since Urban II to be both eager and able to make the Crusade a major papal concern. The Crusading movement thus resulted, ultimately, in the victory of Islam, a result which was of course the exact opposite of its original intention. King Louis VII and Conrad III led armies from France and Germany to Jerusalem and Damascus without winning any major victories. Overall, religious-observant Greeks preferred to sacrifice their political freedom and political independence in order to preserve their faith’s traditions and rituals in separation from the Roman See. The citizens of Zara made reference to the fact that they were fellow Catholics by hanging banners marked with crosses from their windows and the walls of the city, but nevertheless the city fell after a brief siege. The Crusader army arrived outside Constantinople on 24 June 1203 CE. Though Pope Innocent III called for a new Crusade in 1198, power struggles within and between Europe … Dandolo proposed that if the French would assist the Venetians in capturing the rebellious city of Zadar (now in Croatia), he would be willing to suspend the outstanding debt until it could be paid in captured booty. The force consisted of around 4,500 knights and their squires, up to 14,000 infantry, and 20,000-30,000 Venetians. At that point the young emperor ordered the destruction and melting of valuable Byzantine and Roman icons in order to extract their gold and silver. Centuries later, during the middle of the 15th century, the Latin church tried to organize a new crusade aimed at restoring the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, which was gradually being torn down by the advancing Ottoman Turks. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Accordingly, the crusaders proceeded to Venice, for the purpose of securing transportation across the Mediterranean. States & Territories The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Consequently, with the throne now effectively empty and with the support of both the people and the army, a usurper stepped in, one Alexios V Doukas, nicknamed 'Murtzurphlus' for his bushy eyebrows. The young Alexius also journeyed to Rome but had no better luck with Innocent III. In August 1201 CE the leader of the expedition, after the untimely death of Theobald of Champagne, was selected. When the Fourth Crusade arrived at Constantinople, the city had a population of 150,000 people, a garrison of 30,000 men, and a fleet of 20 galleys. Perhaps understandably, the shocking fall of Constantinople has grabbed almost all the attention of the Fourth Crusade, but there was a small contingent of western Crusaders, led by Renard II of Dampierre, which did fulfil the original purpose of the expedition and reach the Middle East, better late than never, in April 1203 CE. Meanwhile, Byzantine refugees founded their own successor states, the most notable of these being the Empire of Nicaea under Theodore Lascaris (a relative of Alexius III), the Empire of Trebizond, and the Despotate of Epirus. The fleet of 60 war galleys, 100 horse transports, and 50 large transports (the entire fleet was manned by 8,000 Venetian oarsmen and marines) arrived at Constantinople in late June 1203. It was, though, all rather insignificant given the original lofty ambitions of Pope Innocent III. "The spirit of reconciliation of the resurrection... incites us toward reconciliation of our churches." Boniface sought the approval of the pope for the diversion, but Innocent refused to allow it. A number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece, and the Holy Land, and in the eastern Baltic area during the Northern Crusades. By the western half of the old Roman Empire, though, the Byzantines were regarded as decadent, shifty, and untrustworthy; even their religious practices were suspect. Thus, Venetian control of Mediterranean trade was now almost total. " In 2004, while Bartholomew I, Patriarch of Constantinople, was visiting the Vatican, John Paul II asked, "How can we not share, at a distance of eight centuries, the pain and disgust. Instead they placed Baldwin of Flanders on the throne. One year after the conquest of the city, Emperor Baldwin was decisively defeated at the Battle of Adrianople on 14 April 1205 by the Bulgarians, and was captured and later executed by the Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan. The first target was the Byzantine garrison at nearby Galata on the other shore of the Golden Horn. The clergy of the party that did not include the emperor-elect were to oversee Hagia Sophia and choose a patriarch. Alexius III had managed to flee with 10,000 pounds of gold and some priceless jewels, leaving the imperial treasury short on funds. When the Crusade army arrived in Venice in the summer of 1202, it was only one-third of its projected size. The collapse of the papacy’s moral authority and the rise of nationalism rang the death knell for crusading, ultimately leading to the Avignon Papacy and the Western Schism. In 1198 he called a new Crusade through legates and encyclical letters. When the Byzantine emperor refused the Crusaders assaulted the city once again. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. A Medieval painting of the Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204. The fact that they were Latin Christians fills Catholics with deep regret. Cartwright, Mark. After the failure of the Fourth Crusade to hold Constantinople or reach Jerusalem, Innocent III launched the first crusade against heretics, the Albigensian Crusade, against the Cathars in France and the County of Toulouse. In the early 13th century, Albert of Riga established Riga as the seat of the Bishopric of Riga and formed the Livonian Brothers of the Sword to convert the pagans to Catholicism and protect German commerce. Categories: In January 1203, en route to Jerusalem, the majority of the Crusader leadership entered into an agreement with the Byzantine prince Alexios Angelos to divert to Constantinople and restore his deposed father as emperor. With the Fifth Crusade (1217-1221 CE) concentrating on North Africa and Egypt, it would not be until the Sixth Crusade (1228-1229 CE) that Christian ambitions in the Middle East were revived. Pope Innocent III was the first pope since Urban II to be both eager and able to make the Crusade a major papal concern. One of Urban’s main aims was to guarantee pilgrims access to the holy sites in the Holy Land that were under Muslim control. Crusading became increasingly widespread in terms of geography and objectives during the 13th century; crusades were aimed at maintaining political and religious control over Europe and beyond and were not exclusively focused on the Holy Land. The mainland Crusader states were extinguished with the fall of Tripoli in 1289 and the fall of Acre in 1291. Reluctant to jeopardize the Crusade, Innocent gave conditional absolution to the Crusaders, but not to the Venetians. Given the recent history of rebellions and takeovers in Byzantium, this was perhaps a rather simplified view of possible events. The Fourth Crusade took place from 1202 until 1204 CE and was a major event in the history of the Crusades. Following the 1182 massacres of all foreigners in Constantinople, the Venetian merchant population had been expelled by the ruling Angelus dynasty with the support of the Greek population. On a popular level, the First Crusade unleashed a wave of impassioned, pious Catholic fury, which was expressed in the massacres of Jews that accompanied the Crusades and the violent treatment of the “schismatic” Orthodox Christians of the east.